Diabetes (Diabetes) includes a number of disorders that have the advantage of having problems with insulin hormone produced by the pancreas in natural mode to help the body use sugar and fat and store some. Diabetes occurs when there are problems in the production of this hormone to increase the blood sugar level.
The term Diabetes (Diabetes) includes a number of disturbances in the process of demolition and construction-metabolism-(metabolism) carbohydrates.
Natural metabolism Process
Carbohydrates that the body gets from eating bread, potatoes, rice, cakes and many other foods, disintegrate and decompose gradually.
This process of disintegration and decomposition begins in the stomach, then lasts in the Twelve (duodenum) and in the fine intestine. This process of disintegration and decomposition produces a range of sugars (carbohydrates-carbohydrate) that are absorbed into the circulatory system.
The inner excretion cells (Internal secretion) in the pancreas (pancreas), which are called beta cells (beta cells), are very sensitive to high blood sugar and secrete the insulin hormone (insulin).
Insulin is a basic bridge for entering sugar particles, glucose, into the muscles where it is used as a source of energy, and to the fat and liver tissue where it is stored.
As glucose reaches the brain, too, but without the help of insulin.
In the pancreas another type of cells are alpha cells (alpha cells), which secrete another hormone called the Glyceragon (glucagon). This hormone causes sugar to be removed from the liver and activates other hormones that hinder the work of insulin.
Balancing these two hormones (insulin and glucagon) keeps the blood glucose level steady and avoids sharp changes.
Healthy weight holders who are more physically active need a small amount of insulin to balance the work of glucose reaching to the blood. The more obese the person and the less physical, the more insulin is needed to treat a similar amount of glucose in the blood. This case is called “insulin resistance“ (insulin resistance).
When beta cells in the pancreas are damaged, the amount of insulin is gradually reduced, and this process lasts many years.
If this case is accompanied by insulin resistance, this combination of low insulin quantity and lower effectiveness level leads to a deviation from the level proper glucose (sugar) in the blood, in which case the person is identified as having diabetes (Diabetes).
It is known that the proper level of blood sugar after fasting eight hours must be less than 108 mg/dl, while the border level is 126 mg/dl. If the blood glucose level of a person is 126 mg/dl and above, in two or more tests, then this person is diagnosed with diabetes.
Types of Diabetes
1. Type I diabetes (Diabetes type 1) (or: Diabetes first pattern/diabetes in children/diabetes in adolescents-Juvenile Diabetes)
It is a disease in which the immune system destroys beta cells in the pancreas, for unknown reasons and has not yet been identified.
When boys, this destruction process takes place quickly and lasts from a few weeks to a few years. In adults, it may last for many years. Many people who are infected with type I diabetes (Diabetes type 1) at an advanced age, their condition is diagnosed, wrongly, as type II diabetes (Diabetes type 2).
2. Type II diabetes (Diabetes type 2) (or: Diabetes II/adult diabetes)
It is a disease in which the beta cells in the pancreas are destroyed and destroyed, probably for hereditary reasons, supported by external factors. This process is very slow and lasts for dozens of years.
A person with a healthy weight and good physical fitness with diabetes is low, even if he has a drop in insulin secretion. The probability that a fat person does not engage in physical activity with diabetes is highly probable, as it is more likely to be infected with “insulin resistance” (insulin resistance) and thus diabetes.
Statistics indicate that the number of people with diabetes is the second pattern in the world, registering a very high rise during the decades recent, reaching some 150 million people, is expected to rise to 330 million diabetics, until the year 2025.
One of the main causes of this acute increase in diabetes mellitus is:
Lack of physical activity
Changes in food types: Today’s common foods include ready-made foods that cause diabetes, being rich in fats and sugars that are easily absorbed into the blood, leading to increased “insulin resistance”.
Diabetes can lead to:
Distinctive disorders in blood lipid, especially high triglyceride (triglyceride)
Low–density lipid protein (good cholesterol – hd).
In total, diabetes patients are affected by distinctive damage: in both faculties, in the eyes of the Retina and in the nervous system.
Symptoms of diabetes
The symptoms of diabetes vary depending on the type of diabetic.
Sometimes, people with “prediabetes” or gestational diabetes (Pregnancy diabetes) may not feel any symptoms at all. Or they may feel some of the symptoms of first-style diabetes and second-style diabetes or with all the symptoms together.
Symptoms of Diabetes:
Urinating a lot, in close times.
Very extreme hunger
Low weight for unclear and unknown reasons
Healing (healing) wounds slowly.
Frequent contamination (infection), in: Gum, skin, vagina or urinary bladder.
Type 1 diabetes may infect the human being at any stage of age, but it appears, mostly, in childhood or teen age.
Type 2 diabetes, which is the most common, can be seen in any age and can be prevented and avoided, often.
Causes and risk factors of diabetes
Learn about the causes and risk factors of diabetes according to type:
Type I diabetes factors
In Type I diabetes, the immune system attacks the cells responsible for excretion of insulin in the pancreas and destroys them, rather from attacking and destroying germs and/or harmful viruses, as it does in normal (sound) situations usually.
As a result, the body stays with a small amount of insulin, or without insulin at all. In this case, sugar collects and accumulates in circulation, instead of being divided into different cells in the body.
It is not known, yet, the real in-kind cause of type 1 diabetes, but it seems that family history plays, probably, an important role.
The risk of diabetes mellitus of type I is increased among people whose parents, brothers and sisters suffer from diabetes. There are also additional factors that may be causing diabetes, such as exposure to viral diseases.
Type II Diabetes factors
When infected with “diabetic providers” that may worsen and turn into type II diabetes, cells resist the effect of insulin work while the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance.
In these cases, sugar collects and accumulates in the circulatory system instead of being divided into the cells and reaches them in different body organs.
The direct cause of the occurrence of these cases is still unknown, but the excess fats–especially in the abdomen–and the lack of physical activity seem to be important factors in doing so.
Researchers are still looking for a real and accurate answer to the question: Why do the “diabetic” and type 2 diabetes cases affect specific persons, in particular, only. However, there are several factors that clearly increase the risk of diabetes, including:
Age: older than or equal to 45
Weight: plus weight defined as the largest or equal BMI of 25.
Heredity: The relative of a first–class family is diabetic.
Ethnicity: Certain ethnic groups are known for their high risk of diabetes.
Physical activity: lack of physical activity.
hypertensive hypertension: defined by higher blood pressure values than Hg 90/140.
Hypercholesterol: The intended harmful LDL
A high level of triglyceride in the blood: one of the types of fats found in the body. Values higher than the MG/DL 250.
Multi-sac ovarian syndrome.
Vascular diseases: A personal history of these diseases.
Birth of a child with a large weight: a personal history of women includes the birth of a child with a weight higher than 4.1 kg (baby weight immediately after birth).
Gestational diabetes: A personal history of gestational diabetes.
Glucose hemoglobin values: HBA1C greater or 5.7%.
Carrying glucose: those with a deficiency/weakness in carrying glucose impaired glucose tolerance
Glucose values: who have an explanation/problem in glucose values (sugar) in post-fasting impaired fasting glucose
When these factors appear – hypertension, hyperglycemia and blood lipid above the normal level-together with obesity (overweight), a relationship arises between them, together, and insulin resistance.
Factors of gestational diabetes
During pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones that help and support the pregnancy. These hormones make the cells more resistant to insulin.
In the second and third trimester of pregnancy, the placenta grows and produces large amounts of these hormones that hamper insulin and make it more difficult.
In normal natural situations, the pancreas produces a reaction to that of producing an additional amount of insulin to overcome that resistance.
However, the pancreas is sometimes unable to keep up with the pace, leading to a very small amount of sugar (glucose) to the cells, while a large amount of it accumulates in the blood circulation. Gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy) is thusformed.
A pregnant woman may be exposed to gestational diabetes, but women are more vulnerable than others. The risk factors for diabetes include:
Women over 25 years of age
Family or personal history
Complications of diabetes
Complications arising from diabetes vary depending on the type of diabetes.
Complications of type I and II diabetes
Short-term complications resulting from type I and II diabetes require immediate processing. Such cases, which are not addressed immediately, may result in seizures (convulsions) and a coma (Coma).
High level of kytuons in the urine (diabetes mellitus–diabetic idosis)
Long-range complications from diabetes are gradually appearing.
The risk of complications increases as diabetes occurs at a younger age and people who are not keen to balance blood sugar. The complications of diabetes may eventually result in disabilities or even death.
Vascular heart disease (cardiovascular)
Nerve damage (neuropathy–neuropathy)
Kidney damage (kidney disorder-nephropathy)
Damage to the eyes.
Damage to the foot-like.
Diseases in the skin and in the mouth
Problems in the bones and in the joints.
Complications of gestational diabetes
The majority of women who are infected with gestational diabetes give birth to healthy children. However, if diabetes in the pregnant woman’s blood is unbalanced and has not been properly monitored and treated, it may cause harm to both the mother and the newborn.
Complications you may get born because of gestational diabetes:
Respiratory distress syndrome (respiratory distress syndrome)
Type II diabetes in advanced age
Complications the mother may get because of gestational diabetes:
Gestational diabetes in the next pregnancy Also
Complications of diabetes
The condition of the diabetic provider may evolve and worsen to become type II diabetes.
Diagnosis of Diabetes
There are many blood tests, by which the symptoms of diabetes can be diagnosed with the first pattern or symptoms of diabetes type II, including:
Random examination of the level of diabetes in the blood.
Examination of the level of diabetes in the blood during fasting.
If a person is diagnosed with the symptoms of diabetes, according to the results of the tests, the doctor may decide to perform additional tests in order to determine the type of diabetes (diabetes type I or diabetes type II), with the aim of choosing the appropriate and efficient diabetes treatment, knowing that treatment methods vary from the type of diabetes My last one.
The physician can also recommend the testing of Glycohemoglobin A1C/glycosylated hemoglobin test.
Screening for gestational diabetes
Screening tests for gestational diabetes are an integral part of normal, routine checkups, during pregnancy.
Most medical professionals are advised to undergo a blood test for diabetes called “Glucose challenge test” (glucose challenged test). During pregnancy, between the twenty-fourth and twenty-eighth weeks of pregnancy, or earlier in women who are more likely to be infected with gestational diabetes.
The glucose challenge test begins with the drinking of a sugar–syrup solution. An hour later a blood test is performed to measure the level (concentration) of diabetes inthe blood. If the blood glucose is higher than 140 mg/dl (mg/dl), this usually indicates the presence of gestational diabetes. In most cases, however, there is a need to replicate the test in order to confirm the diagnosis of diabetes.
In preparation for the re-examination (additional), the pregnant woman who is undergoing examination should fast throughout the night prior to the examination. And here, once again, a sweet taste solution is drinking this time has a higher concentration of glucose, then the blood level diabetes is measured every hour, over three hours.
Tests to detect “diabetes”
The American College of Endocrinology (hormonal-endocrinology) recommends, usually, a screening of “diabetic providers” for each a person with a family history of type two diabetes, for those suffering from hyperthyroobesity or with metabolic syndrome (metabolic syndrome). It is also advisable that women who have been infected with gestational diabetes in the past be subjected to this examination.
The doctor may recommend that one of the following tests be submitted to diagnose “diabetes”:
Blood glucose screening during fasting
Test carrying glucose (glucose tolerance test).
Treatment of Diabetes
Treatment of type 2 diabetes
Treatment of diabetes varies from one person to another depending on the personal laboratory tests performed by each patient and the glucose (sugar) values in their blood.
It should be noted that, according to the complications of diabetes that we have previously introduced, the risk of microvascular disease and vascular diseases you see visually (microvascular ¯ovascular) are high whenever the concentration of blood sugar is higher over long periods of disease.
In addition to cardiovascular diseases, which are also more dangerous, the longer the patient’s age and the longer the time for diabetes. This is why we have to treat this category seriously and balance the glucose concentration values in the blood as much as possible.
Treatment in this category of persons has to contain the prevention of severe declines in blood sugar concentration (emia), or severe blood circulation (sharp drop in blood pressure hypotension). Attention is also drawn to the overall health condition of the patient and the overall medication that is treated so that the patient can suffer from more than one disease in addition to diabetes.
We can split the treatment of diabetes into several sections:
1. Lifestyle changes
Healthy and appropriate nutrition for this group of patients.
Physical sports recommended by treating physicians, which are suited to each patient, in particular, according to the overall illnesses suffered and that can affect regular and healthy physical sports such as heart disease, physical disabilities and other diseases.
Weight reduction and BMI which would help the body to relieve insulin resistance and cause diabetes.
2. Oral medication Treatment
Metürmin (metformin): It is a special first line of treatment for people with excessive obesity. This medication is operated by the inhibition/prevention of glucose production in the liver, which reduces the concentration of glucose in the blood. One of the known side effects of this medication is the weight loss and effects on the digestive system. Persons suffering from chronic renal failure diseases This type of medication can be inappropriate and even harmful.
Sulfanil-Uriia (sulfonylurea): A drug that helps to secrete insulin in the body by changes in the electrical charge of the membrane of the cells that secreted insulin. A known and common side effect of these medications is to gain excess weight and steep drop in the concentration of glucose (sugar) in the Blood (emia). Older persons who are exposed to repeated cases of sharp drop in the concentration of glucose (sugar) in the blood (emia) have to be careful not to take up these medications, which may be inappropriate for them.
Thiyazoldinins (thiazolidinediones): This type of medication improves insulin resistance in the body, as well as can induce insulin secretion.
Megtilened (meglitinides): These medications are similar to the Sulfanil–uriia medications. A known side effect of this class of medications is to gain excess weight.
Alpha-glocodase inhibitors (alpha-glucosidase inhibitors): These medications are operated by slowing down the digestive system of sugar. The known side effects of this class of medications are abdominal (swelling) and diarrhea.
DVD inhibitors 4 (DPP-IV inhibitors): These medications help in the process of regulating the concentration of glucose (sugar) in the body. In general these medications are not strong and are not highly effective to reduce the hemoglobin of Glutkozati HBA1C noticeably as other medications. It is worth mentioning that these drugs do not increase weight and are not high in severity because of a sharp drop in the concentration of glucose (sugar) in the body.
Glp-1: These medications are operated by the peptic role in the digestive system on the balance of glucose concentration in the blood, including the glp-1. The known side effects of this medication are weight reduction, vomiting, nausea and diarrhea.
3. Treatment of diabetes by injection
Insulin: Insulin therapy has become more common in the recent period, although many patients refuse to accept treatment by injection on a daily basis. Insulin treatment is divided into two types:
Treatment with long-term efficacy (daily) insulin, which is a daily injection that provides the body with basic insulin quantity (basal). This would make it easier for the patient to accept treatment more given the need for injections for more than once a day. This type of treatment can be described with other medications that are treated by the mouth to balance the disease more efficiently.
Insulin is a short-term efficacy therapy (shorter acting), an insulin that is taken immediately after eating daily meals and the amount of food is usually suited to the amount of insulin short-lived after it.
The Brahnitide (pramlintide): is generally given by injection accompaniment to insulin.
4. Monitoring the concentration of glucose (sugar) in the blood
The concentration of glucose (sugar) in the blood especially in the morning hours is important and usually gives us information about the balance of the disease in those patients. Doctors usually care about these recordings in order to determine the appropriate treatment of patients and the need to add other medications to better balance the disease.
In addition to direct treatment to reduce the concentration of glucose in the blood there is no less important treatment that reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, which includes:
Reduce smoking as much as possible. Sometimes there are group sessions organized in which physicians are advised to help quit smoking:
Treatment of hypertensive
Treatment of Hyperhematology
Treatment by aspirin
As we have stated previously, living healthy and healthy in terms of food and sport.
Type 1 Diabetes treatment
1. Control and recording of glucose concentration values (body sugar)
The researchers have demonstrated the importance of observing and recording blood glucose values on a daily basis and for more than once, helping them to treat this group of patients better, as well as to fit the appropriate insulin dose. We can monitor and record the body’s glucose concentration values in two ways:
Measurement by a special finger stick (fingerstick) to measure glucose concentration by a drop of blood from the finger.
Advanced Under-skin electronic devices to measure the concentration of glucose in the body in a sequential manner and over the course of daylight hours (according to a preprogrammed program from the treatment provider).
2. Insulin injection
We can divide the insulin treatment for this category by two parts:
Insulin therapy is of long-term efficacy (daily), which is a daily injection that provides the body with the basic amount of insulin (basal). This would make it easier for the patient to accept treatment more given the need for injections for more than once a day. This type of treatment can be described with other oral medications to balance the disease more efficiently.
Insulin therapy is of short-term efficacy, which is the insulin that is taken immediately after eating daily meals and the amount of food and glucose concentration in the blood is usually suited to the amount of insulin short-lived.
Treatment of gestational diabetes (Pregnancy diabetes)
In order to maintain the health of the foetus and prevent complications during childbirth, the blood sugar level must be weighed. In addition to ensuring healthy nutrition and sports, diabetes treatment can also include monitoring of blood sugar and, in some cases, the use of insulin.
The medical staff of the therapist will monitor the level of blood sugar, including during the delivery process. Because if the blood of the pregnant woman rises, the body of the fetus may secrete the insulin hormone at a high concentration, which will lead to a drop in the blood sugar level immediately after birth.
Treatment of diabetic providers (prediabetes)
Many people with diabetes, by maintaining a healthy lifestyle, can restore blood sugar level to normal (proper) or at least, prevent it from rising to levels similar to those recorded in type II diabetes patients. It may also be useful to maintain a healthy weight, by practicing sports and a healthy diet.
Medicines may, at times, be an appropriate and efficient therapeutic alternative to diabetes mellitus and treatment for people in one vulnerable group. These include: cases in which diabetes mellitus is aggravated, or where a diabetic patient suffers from another disease, whether it is a heart disease vascular (cardiovascular disease), fatty liver disease (f-fatty liver disease) or polycystic ovarian syndrome (cystic ovary syndrome).
The medications that are intended here are diabetes treatments that are treated orally, such as: Mittürmin (metformin).
In other cases, medicines are needed to balance cholesterol in blood-especially from the INS-class and medications to treat hypertensive. The doctor is likely to prescribe a low dose of aspirin (aspirin) as a disease prevention measure. However, a healthy lifestyle remains the key to success.
Prevention of diabetes
Type I diabetes cannot be prevented. However, a healthy lifestyle that contributes to the treatment of pre-diabetes stage and symptoms, type II diabetes and gestational diabetes can also contribute to prevention and prevention.
Care for Healthy Nutrition
Increased physical activity
Excess weight disposal.
Medications can, at times, be used. Oral treatment medications for diabetes, such as mittürmin (metformin) and Rozeglizón (rosiglitazone), can reduce the risk of type two diabetes. However, maintaining a healthy lifestyle remains very important.